Latin American Journal of Computing https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC <div> <p>Since 2014, the Latin-American Journal of Computing (LAJC) is a free biannual open-access peer-reviewed publication sponsored by the <a title="FIS" href="http://fis.epn.edu.ec" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Faculty of Systems Engineering</a> of the <a title="EPN" href="http://www.epn.edu.ec" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Polytechnic School of Ecuador</a>, one of the top research universities in Latin America. This Journal&nbsp;publishes scientific articles within the various academic and professional fields of Informatics, Computer Science and Information and Communication Technologies, which are produced in the context of research projects and / or contributions from researchers from Universities worldwide. Some of the research areas which this journal focuses on are: Security and Privacy; Information Systems; Intelligent Systems and Other Technology Trends; Software Engineering and Applications; Science, Technology and Society (STS); and Computer Science and Information Technologies for inclusive education and disability.</p> <p>Our aim is to serve as a free-of-charge space for the exchange of knowledge between researchers and professionals, from academia and industry alike, by encouraging to present original research papers y cutting-edge technical reviews for publication.&nbsp;</p> <p>Prospective authors are cordially invited to publish in LAJC by submitting their manuscripts preferably in English, or Spanish for our January to June issue, or July to December issue.</p> </div> <p>Indexed in:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><a title="AmeliCA" href="http://portal.amelica.org/revista.oa?id=602" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AmeliCA</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/1390-9266" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Open-Access Journals (DOAJ)</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="Latindex 2.0" href="https://www.latindex.org/latindex/ficha?folio=25216" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Latindex Catalogue 2.0</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="ROAD" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/1390-9134" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Open-Access Scholarly Resources (ROAD)</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="CiteFactor" href="https://www.citefactor.org/journal/index/12070/latin-american-journal-of-computing#.YgPFAt9ByUk" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CiteFactor</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="LAJC Zenodo Community" href="https://zenodo.org/communities/lajc-epn-fis?page=1&amp;size=20" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Zenodo (OpenAIRE)</a></li> <li class="show"><a title="BASE" href="https://www.base-search.net/Record/01300cc9ea93f5747664412ad23a96e2d797ff3de16115fbdd850878777d5283/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE)</a></li> </ul> ESCUELA POLITÉCNICA NACIONAL en-US Latin American Journal of Computing 1390-9266 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencia Creative Commons"></a></p> <p>Latin-American Journal of Computing is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p>By participating as Author (s) in LAJC, I acknowledge that non-exclusive copyright is transferred to the National Polytechnic School. Find out more in our <a href="https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/copyrightNotice" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Copyright Notice</a>.</p> <p>Furthermore, if the article is accepted for publication in LAJC, Authors give their consent to the Editorial Committee to publish the article in the issue that best suits the interests of the Journal.</p> <p><strong>Disclaimer</strong></p> <p>LAJC in no event shall be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, punitive, or consequential copyright infringement claims related to articles that have been submitted for evaluation, or published in any issue of this journal. Find out more in our <a title="Disclaimer" href="https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/about#disclaimer" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Disclaimer Notice</a>.</p> Editorial https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/305 <p><strong>Towards the search for opportunities in a world of adversity. </strong></p> <p>Since the beginning of this Journal, we have provided a space for scientific dissemination without barriers, guaranteeing open access and the right to free thought for our authors and readers. We believe that this principle has taken on a much deeper relevance; especially as our society goes through a Pandemic with our eyes set on a glimmer of hope that finally seems to reveal itself to us.</p> <p>However, if this hope does not materialize through the management of knowledge and its responsible dissemination, the action of science in each of our realities would make no sense at all. Consequently, the contribution of researchers to cope with the current situation would be irrelevant, not to say non-existent.</p> <p>In this aspect, applied research, in the field of computer science and informatics, more than a calling, becomes a duty, committing us to our future. We must guarantee sustainable, accessible, and safe access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Mainly considering that, since the beginning of 2020, these have become an undeniable and inalienable service that guarantees our right to work, access to study, and coexistence with our loved ones.</p> <p>From our editorial, we see with optimism the contributions made in this issue, which give certainty of the impact that ICTs have on the transformation of our society and its adverse realities. The articles that we present constitute important assets for the assistance in the diagnosis and treatment of different pathologies, the intelligent monitoring of crops,&nbsp;and the efficient management of information systems and their underlying technologies. These contributions demonstrate the work carried out by various researchers who, regardless of their current situation, continue to dedicate their lives so that knowledge generation does not stop in spite of current limitations. We cordially invite you to review their work, hoping that you find it inspiring, eloquent and insightful.</p> <p>Finally, as the new Editor-in-Chief of the Latin American Journal of Computing (LAJC), I would like to sincerely thanks to our editorial team&nbsp;and our valued reviewers, because without their hard work it would not have been possible to successfully complete this issue. I am extremely pleased to enter firmly into our ninth year, being part of such a professional team, optimistic and above all committed to our authors in providing a space for the dissemination of their academic and scientific work.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5816338"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5816338.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Denys Flores, PhD. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 12 15 Implementing a Web and Mobile Application "Grammar Structures and Adjectives" for Assisting Intellectually Disabled People https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/301 <p>This project was carried out in collaboration with INSFIDIM therapists, the institute's therapists encounter some difficulties when giving language therapy to their students with some type of disability, there is little specific digital pedagogical material for people with intellectual disabilities and in many cases, general applications have been used during therapies without obtaining good results. The objective of the project is to develop a web application and a mobile application so that it allows people with intellectual disabilities to improve their communication and language skills. The methodology used for the development of this project was incremental iterative development in combination with user experience and prototyping, the union of these is useful to validate the application requirements and obtain constant feedback at each step gives in the development of the application. Usability and satisfaction surveys conducted to evaluate prototypes of the application show that therapists have a quick understanding of the functionality and navigability of the application and agree with the design, information, and difficulty of the game levels to meet with his goal of teaching grammatical structures with adjectives. The developed application is easy to use for INSFIDIM therapists and students, therapists comment that the application will be of great help in the work they do with students to develop their comprehensive and expressive language.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5817409" target="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5817409"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5817409.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Santiago Loya-Nasimba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 18 33 Extended Evaluation of Loss-Based TCP Variants Performance Over Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Networks for Case W x =W max https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/292 <p>This article aims to show an extended analysis of the previous study carried out by [5], where the performance of TCP on an OBS network model was addressed based on regenerative processes and Markov renewal theory (proposed in the literature) , and its evaluation by means of simulation using the network simulator program ns-2; However, in this new study, an expanded version of TCP throughput over OBS networks is provided for generic speed sources, taking into account an assembly time window of + -10%, in reference to the optimal assembly time for the particular case of Wx = Wmax, which in the previous study was left open for future work. As in [5], this new analysis is performed using the most common versions of the loss-based TCP protocol, such as Reno, New Reno and SACK, whose results are contrasted by means of computer simulation, in terms of the performance of TCP and its corresponding theoretical and experimental errors, bearing in mind the analytical expressions obtained both in the aforementioned previous article, as well as the original analysis carried out by [3], given the differences found in terms of its mathematical development; also maintaining the analysis for the scenarios with and without the delayed ACK option, for a comparative study between versions.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5816323"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5816323.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Antonio Javier Venegas Paola Venegas Vinicio Freire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 72 85 A proposal to Assist the Mashup Co-evolution when web APIs evolve https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/286 <p>As web application programming interfaces (APIs) evolve, previously established contracts change, and thus can affect the behavior, operation and / or execution of consumer applications such as Mashup. In these cases, these applications need to be repaired to continue working, which is a process called co-evolution. Identifying and locating the operations that are affected by the evolution of web APIs and estimating the impact they generate are&nbsp;necessary tasks that help the developer update the code.&nbsp;This work presents a proposal to assist the coevolution of Mashup.&nbsp;Specifically from a mashup operations graph,&nbsp;we&nbsp;identify and locate the operations affected by some&nbsp;changes&nbsp;in the web APIs. We also propose a set of simple metrics that allow&nbsp;estimating&nbsp;the impact of these changes on the mashup. The mashup operations graph and metrics&nbsp;assist&nbsp;web developers in co-evolution tasks. The proposal was applied to two mashups that are currently available on the web. The preliminary results show that the proposal is applicable.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5816331"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5816331.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Graciela Beatriz Vidal Sandra Casas, Dra. Franco Herrera, Lic. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 86 97 Digital Compression in Medical Images https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/294 <p>Imaging technology has long played a principal role in the medical domain, and as such, its use is widespread in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous health conditions. Concurrently, new developments in imaging techniques and sensor technology make possible the acquisition of increasingly detailed images of several organs of the human body. This improvement is indeed advantageous for medical practitioners. However, it comes to a cost in the form of storage and telecommunication infrastructures needed to handle high-resolution images reliably. Ordinarily, digital compression is a mainstay in the efficient management of digital media, including still images and video. From a technical point of view, medical imaging could take full advantage of digital compression technology. However, nuances unique to medical data impose constraints to the application of digital compression in medical images. This paper presents an overview of digital compression in the context of still medical images, along with a brief discussion on related regulatory and legal implications.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5816321"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5816321.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Alex Cazañas-Gordón Esther Parra-Mora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 60 71 Geofences Application Develoment for assisting people through monitoring https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/295 <p>Today's mobile devices have a wide variety of components and sensors that can be used for application development. Specifically, the possibility of geolocating the device user, generates a great variety of applications, for example routing on maps according to traffic, the possibility of meeting nearby people, requests for opinions on places that the user has visited, among many others. Another application that stands out is being able to detect when the user enters or leaves a certain area, what is known as geofencing. Geofences are virtual fences or boundaries determined by geographical coordinates. Although this technique has a wide variety of applications, this work emphasizes its use for the active monitoring of people, whether they are adults with a health problem or children. Two applications that are currently being developed by the research and development team are presented, explaining their characteristics and possible uses</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5816334"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5816334.svg" alt="DOI"></a>&nbsp;</p> Pablo Martín Vera Rocío Andrea Rodríguez Cesar Daniel Delgado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 98 107 Recognition of necrotic lesions for the detection of the thrips plague in peas using the deep learning model yolov4-tiny https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/296 <p>At present, the monitoring of crops in agricultural plots remains one of the most important tasks that precision agriculture has since through it is possible to perform the estimation of the yield and the prediction of crops. Due to the complicated atmospheric conditions and climatic factors that the sector presents, the early detection of pests and diseases has become a considerable challenge that producers must constantly assume. This research proposes a rapid and effective necrotic lesion recognition system for the early detection of the thrips infestation in peas by implementing the yolov4-tiny deep learning method. The results obtained by the developed system showed that the IoU (Intersection at the Union) is 59.23% for an mAP (Medium Precision) of 87.8% in a high-density data set. In addition, each of the values ​​delivered by the system was compared with a prescribed diagnosis that was made by an expert in crop production through direct observations of the pea. In this way, it was established that the system is 80% effective.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5816314"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5816314.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Silvia Diana Martínez Mosquera Carlos Jonathan Guerrero-Andrade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 46 59 Development of a System for Strategic Surveillance of Social Networks and Digital Press Media using Web Scraping https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/302 <p>The “Tyche” research program has the objective of creating a tool environment to carry out activities that facilitate the tasks of Strategic Surveillance. At present, the ADA laboratory of the Systems Engineering Faculty (FIS) of the EPN is executing several integrating projects distributed in different phases. The present integrative project is within the third phase called "Information Collection". The objective of the project is to develop an automated information collection system, optimizing search times and reducing information overload. This search will be done on digital media and social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn). In addition, the purpose is also to obtain information that is easy to interpret, generates knowledge, and contributes to the organizations that use Strategic Surveillance.</p> <p>The degree work is developed under the agile Scrum methodology that will allow partial deliveries of the product incrementally and iteratively, which will help developers to perform the division of tasks and allocation of work time. The system is based on the MVC pattern (Model - View - Controller). The Model part corresponds to Prisma which, is a GraphQL database connection. On the other hand, the Controller has been developed in Python together with the implementation of libraries, frameworks, and APIs, while the View which, is the interaction with the user was developed in the Angular framework and written in TypeScript. programming language.</p> <p>The developed system was evaluated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The evaluation showed that more than 80% of the participants considered the system to be easy to use, and 100% perceived it to be useful for the collection of information from social networks and digital media. It is concluded that although there are improvements that can be made to the system, it fulfills its objective.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5817472"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5817472.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Lorena Recalde Edison Loza-Aguirre Carol Oña Nicole Pirca ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-03 2022-01-03 9 1 34 45 Neutrality of electronic tourism: its trace on the digital tourist and digital transformation of tourism industry https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/269 <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 12.0pt; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-weight: normal;">Electronic tourism (e-tourism) has led to a radical change in the tourism industry. However, there are still gaps with respect to the neutrality of e-tourism where the concern remains to know if the liberating or repressive features of digital technologies are a key point for the digital tourist to maintain his co-creative role and be a driver of the digital transformation of the industry. Based on the fact that the technology is not neutral, the purpose of this article is to identify the liberating and repressive features of e-tourism with a focus on the digital tourist. From this, analyze if these features have led to the digital transformation of the industry. An exploratory bibliographic review was carried out that allowed the analysis around four e-tourism scenarios that include the behavior of the digital tourist, content creation, the digital tourist as a prosumer, and risks in e-tourism. The findings show that the scenarios could manifest both features. However, our analysis places e-tourism as a liberator of the digital tourist, because it tends to project characteristics of compatibility, accessibility and responsibility through the participation, collaboration, and variety of information it provides.</span></p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5770951"><img src="https://zenodo.org/badge/DOI/10.5281/zenodo.5770951.svg" alt="DOI"></a></p> Johanna Toscano-Jara Edison Loza-Aguirre Antonio Franco-Crespo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 9 1 84 97