Latin American Journal of Computing https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC <div> <p>Latin American Journal of Computing (LAJC) is an open access peer-reviewed journal, sponsored by the <a title="FIS" href="http://fis.epn.edu.ec" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Faculty of Systems Engineering</a> of the <a title="EPN" href="http://www.epn.edu.ec" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National Polytechnic School of Ecuador</a>. This journal publishes new results in different areas such as Information Security, Information Systems, Intelligent Systems, Software Engineering and Science, Technology and Society (STS).</p> <p>The goal of this journal is to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to present original research papers, technical reviews and state-of-the-art reviews for publication.</p> <p>LAJC has a semi-annual periodicity. Authors are cordially invited to contribute to the journal by submitting their manuscripts in either, the January to May number, or July to November number.</p> </div> <p style="text-align: center;">Web Site: <a href="/">https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/</a></p> <p>Indexed:<br><br></p> <table border="0" cellspacing="4" cellpadding="4"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="text-align: center;"><img class="image-left image-border" src="/public/site/images/Administrador/latindexCatalogo2.jpg" alt="latindex" width="112" height="39" border="0"></td> <td><img class="image-left image-border" src="/public/site/images/Administrador/smallLogoCiteFactor.png" alt="Cite Factor" width="129" height="41" border="0"></td> <td><img class="image-left image-border" src="/public/site/images/Administrador/doaj_320.jpg" alt="DOAJ" width="128" height="40" border="0"></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> ESCUELA POLITÉCNICA NACIONAL en-US Latin American Journal of Computing 1390-9266 <p>By participating as Author (s) in LAJC, non-exclusive copyright is transferred to the National Polytechnic School, represented by the Department of Informatics and Computer Sciences, to publish the material submitted by the Author (s) on institutional websites, or print materials from the institution.</p> <p><span id="result_box" lang="en"><span class="hps">The National Polytechnic School and the Department of Informatics and Computer Sciences, ensure that the material will not be released, nor will be used internally for profit through paid subscriptions. The material sent will be used only for academic and scientific purposes.</span></span></p> Digital agriculture in Pitahaya crop https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/209 <p style="text-align: justify;">Digital agriculture has arrived to solve the production problem that exists in the land, the ptimization of agricultural processes through sensors with IoT technology are being a great help so that &nbsp;armers can produce more on their land and use the available resources of a more effective way. The trial that was carried out in the Palora sector in the cultivation of pitahaya, testing this new technology, resulted in having the data in real time allowing better decisions to be made when carrying out agricultural work without the need to be present in the plantation, such as Consequently, the environmental impact is minimized and a greater profitability of the crop is obtained. Once the information analysis had been carried out, it was determined that&nbsp;the area where the pitahaya crop is located does meet the necessary characteristics or the development of the crop, this could be contrasted by analyzing the data and monitoring the parameters in the intuitive agriculture module platform. The results obtained are an average of 7 mm / day of water in the pluviosity parameter, in terms of solar adiation, measurements were obtained with a ceiling of 2581.51 PAR, on the other hand, soil moisture had peaks of up to 16.40 cb, finally the temperature reached levels of 35.09 ° c.</p> Ángel Llerena Zambrano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 7 2 22 33 Design and implementation of wireless sensor network with LoRa technology for industrial monitoring https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/215 <p>The growing development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has diversified its fields of application, improving not only the interconnection of people but as well the communication between industrial machinery (M2M, Machine-to-Machine), in which its features in range, scalability, and low cost of deployment can be taken advantage of. LoRa and LoRaWAN technologies are presented as one of the main low-cost wireless communication options in the integration of industrial systems with a view to the new requirements of Industry 4.0. In this work, a measurement campaign and the analysis of the data obtained were performed to evaluate the behavior and applicability of LoRa and LoRaWAN technologies within industrial environments. To contrast the results, tests were performed in clear urban environments, where it was observed that the conditions inside the industrial buildings allow the establishment of a link with favorable radio frequency conditions. Initially, short-range scenarios (&lt;100 m) have been considered in which a line of sight is maintained between the transmitter and the receiver.</p> Adrián E. Hererdia Paúl F. Lucero Fabián Astudillo-Salinas Andrés Vazquez Rodas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 7 2 48 63 A comparative evaluation of the performance of open-source SDN controllers https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/218 <p>Software-defined Networking (SDN) constitutes a new era in the development of internetworking. The SDN paradigm splits the data plane from the control plane. It uses controller equipment, which is responsible for centrally managing several network devices simultaneously. This study analyzes three open-source controllers for SDN based on the OpenFlow protocol. Specifically, the performance of FloodLight, OpenDayLight (ODL), and Ryu controllers is evaluated in terms of latency, throughput, and scalability. In doing so, the Cbench tool is used in an emulated environment with Mininet. The results show that the Ryu controller presents the lowest performance in all the evaluated parameters; ODL provides lower latency and FloodLight higher throughput. Regarding scalability, we conclude that Floodlight can be used in small networks, whereas ODL can be used in dense networks. Furthermore, we evaluate their main characteristics, which must be considered for their choice prior to implementation and deployment.</p> Daniel Haro Mendoza Luis Tello Oquendo Luis A. Marrone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 7 2 64 77 An implementation of a Virus Focuses on Mobile Devices with Android. An Ethical Hacking Event. https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/220 <p>Mobile devices have become part of daily social life. However, the vulnerabilities of this equipment are widespread, affecting information or damaging the system internally. Within this problem, this research proposes the implementation of a virus that allows affecting the Android victim device focusing on finding the vulnerabilities through penetration tests. The virus was designed through the principle of thread programming to a generation of scripts. Furthermore, the attack on Android devices’ vulnerable systems is conducted, applying social engineering techniques. Thus, through imperative programming techniques and functional, the access and use have been achieved, given that the virus had classes that allow connection and communication with the device. Each class was developed together so that in this way, there is a precise relationship between them. In this study, Kali Linux, with different Metasploit commands, was used.&nbsp; The proofs of concept were conducted using controlled virtual network environments. For this, a server and a platform were used to use the IP and the Ngrok host, which allows us to generate&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; a link with the application that will violate Android’s services and security over secure tunnels. The results show that the operating system tends to be prone to internal damage. At the same time, users can be affected when their security and privacy are compromised. The proposal contributes significantly to a new version of Android’s security patches, implementing&nbsp;&nbsp; a malware model that will integrate techniques to mitigate this problem in the future.</p> Carlos Andrés Estrada Vásquez Walter Fuertes Amy Rashell Sánchez Cárdenas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 7 2 78 91 Anomaly detection under cognitive security model https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/221 <p>Cybersecurity attacks are considered among the top five of risks worldwide, according to the World Economic Forum in the year 2019. This context has generated the need to improve the tasks of cybersecurity defense in organizations. Improving the effectiveness in executing a cybersecurity task requires three pillars: people, processes and technologies. The proposal in this work is to analyze the integration of these three components as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of the execution of operational tasks in cyber defense, specifically the detection of anomalies. Based on the foundation that: cybersecurity operational tasks carried out daily by analysts require the use of cognitive processes, and that the use of techniques based on technologies such as machine learning, data mining and data science have generally been used to automate cybersecurity tasks, we have considered the use of cognitive security, as a strategy to improve the anomaly detection process, taking into account the cognitive processes and skills that are executed by the security analyst.</p> Jonathan Herrera Roberto Omar Andrade Miguel Flores Susana Cadena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 7 2 34 47 Editorial https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/243 <p style="text-align: justify;">Dear readers,</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Welcome to Number 2 Volume 7 of Latin-American Computing Journal. This is the second issue that we make available during the global COVID-19 pandemic and with it the 2020 activity closes. On this occasion, the editors of LAJC wish to thank the many hours of dedication in the fulfillment of their professional, academic and research responsibilities of our readers and collaborators during this time.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In this regular issue, I am pleased to present an interesting variety of relevant research articles in their respective fields. We hope that the eight selected topics will generate interest and encourage our readers in their various activities. A brief synopsis of each is shown below.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The article "Digital agriculture in pitahaya crop" presents a technological solution that provides relevant information for precision agriculture. This solution was implemented in the Palora region, Morona Santiago Province, Ecuador where there are 1,528 hectares of pitahaya crops. In the article "Anomaly detection under a cognitive security model", an architecture is implemented to differentiate the behavior of benign from malicious network traffic, to support the cognitive processes of security analysts. In the third article "Design and implementation of a wireless sensor network with LoRa technology for industrial monitoring", an architecture for short-range communications with low-cost equipment is proposed. This solution was validated in two industrial scenarios. The study “A comparative evaluation of the performance of open-source SDN controllers" creates a software-defined network using lightweight virtualization mechanisms to compare latency, performance, and scalability of three open protocol controllers. The authors of “An implementation of a virus focused on mobile devices with Android. An Ethical Hacking Event” use a virtualized platform to perform penetration tests on Android systems to study the vulnerabilities of said systems. The article "Digital image processing in the creation of an intelligent system prototype for text detection and recognition in the labeling process of electrical cable" uses a database of images of cables of different color, text color, cable type and caliber, similar to those used in industrial plants, obtaining average error rates of 6.54%, 3.97% and 2.53%. The following article “Rain gauge data logger based on ATMEL microcontroller and LoRa transceiver” implements a weather station with low power consumption and reduced costs for data acquisition, storage, and transmission. During the confinement, the authors of the article "Use of technology in Industry 4.0 to support the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic through a hand hygiene dispenser using locally built devices" used easily available and low cost materials to manufacture a device that detects the presence of the user's hands in front of the sanitizing liquid dispenser duct.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">I thank the authors and reviewers of this issue for their valuable and generous contribution. Finally, a well-deserved annual recognition to all the authors and reviewers who have selflessly supported LAJC since its inception in 2014.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Enjoy reading this issue! &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sandra Sanchez-Gordon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 7 2 14 17 Use of Technology in Industry 4.0 to support the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic through a hand hygiene dispenser using locally built devices https://lajc.epn.edu.ec/index.php/LAJC/article/view/210 <p>The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic promoted the existence of new issues. They should have been quickly solved.&nbsp; The solutions have been promoted without all the available resources because lockdown and several restrictions that were established. This paper proposes an innovative idea with the development to get a functional prototype. The prototype allows the sanitation of hands.&nbsp; This process is gathered employing liquids that have alcohol. The dispenser does not require the direct contact of the user with the prototype. This is adapted to Ecuadorian reality and could be produced with local parts. We present the challenges that were solved to have a product that complete works. It includes the design of sensing and actuation devices that are chosen to achieve the projected goals.&nbsp; The control structure and the recommendations for correct usage are also presented. Finally, the proposals to have a better prototype with internet of things (IoT) are introduced.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Andrés Ganán Cristian Ganán Robert Enríquez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 7 2 124 137